Aquatic invertebrate-waterbird relationships on Alaska's arctic coastal plain,

Howard, R. L., 1974, M.S. Thesis, Iowa State Univ., Ames. 49pp..

Behaviour and ecology of sea ducks. Goudie, R. I., M. R. Petersen and G. J. Robertson. (eds.).

1999. Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Papers Series No. 100, Ottawa.

Consumption of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha by diving ducks in Lakes Erie and St Clair Hamilton, D. J. and Ankney, C. D., 1994, , Wildfowl 45:159-166..

Delayed capelin (Mallotus villosus) availability influences large gull predatory behaviour

on black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), causing a reduction in breeding success.

Massaro, M., J.W. Chardine, I.L. Jones and G.J. Robertson. submitted. Canadian Journal of Zoology

The distribution of waterfowl in relation to mollusc populations in the man-made Lake Zegrzynskie, Stanczykowska, A., Zyska, P., Dombrowski, A., Kot, H., and Zyska, E., 1990, Hydrobiologia 191:233-240..

Feeding ecology of the long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis wintering in the gulf of Gdansk

(southern Baltic Sea), Stempniewicz, L., 1995, Ornic Svec. 5:133-142..

Food and feeding of diving ducks breeding at Lake Myvatn, Iceland,

Bengtson=, S.-A., 1971, Ornis Fenn. 48:77-92..

Food-habitat relationship of sea ducks on the New Hampshire coastline,

Stott, R. S. and Olson, D. P., 1973, Ecology 54:996-1007..

Food habits of North American diving ducks, Cottam, C., 1939, U.S. Dep. Agric. Tech. Bull. 643. 140pp..

Food habits of oldsquaws wintering on Lake Michigan

Peterson, S. R. and Ellarson, R. S., 1977, , Wilson Bull. 89:81-91..

Food habits of sea ducks from the north-eastern United States,

McGilvrey, F. B., 1967, Wildfowl 18:142-145..

The food of some British waterfowl, Campbell, J. W., 1947, Ibis 89:429-432..

Food of the old-squaw in Lake Michigan, Lagler, K. F. and Wienert, C. C., 1948, Wilson Bull. 60:118

Foods and foraging ecology of oldsquaws (Clangula hyemalis L) on the arctic coastal plain of Alaska Taylor, E. J., 1986, , M.S. Thesis, Univ. Alaska, Fairbanks. 130pp..

Food-seeking activity of south Swedish diving ducks in the non-breeding season,

Nilsson, L., 1970, Oikos 21:145-154..

Foraging strategies and habitat use of sea ducks breeding in northeast Russia

Alexander V. Kondratyev

Growth and movements of oldsquaw ducklings in relation to food,

Pehrsson, O. and Nystrom, K. G. K., 1988, J. Wildl. Manage. 52:185-191..

Habitat Selection And Moult Characteristics Of Male Barrow's Goldeneye In Northern Yukon.

Debbie E. van de Wetering & Tony D. Williams.

Habitat selection, food choice, and feeding habits of diving ducks in coastal waters of south Sweden during the non-breeding season, Nilsson, L., 1972, Ornis Scand. 3:55-78..

Habitat selection of duck broods in Lake Myvatn area, north-east Iceland,

Bengtson=, S.-A., 1971, Ornis Scand. 2:17-26..

Habitat usage and populations of sea ducks on the New Hampshire coastline,

Stott, R. S., 1972, M.S. Thesis, Univ. New Hampshire, Durham. 120pp..

Nutrition of small ducklings regulating breeding area and reproductive output in the long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis), Pehrsson, O., 1974, Trans. Congr. Int. Union Game Biol. 11:259-264..

The oldsquaw: body measurements, food habits, and environmental contaminants,

Peterson, S. R., 1976, Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Wisconsin, Madison. 132pp..

Oligochaeta as a winter food source for the old squaw,

Rofritz, D. J., 1977, J. Wildl. Manage. 41:590-591..

On the food habits of the diving ducks in Denmark,

Madsen, F. J., 1954, Dan. Rev. Game Biol. 2(3):157-266..

Salinity as a constraint affecting food and habitat choice of mussel-feeding diving ducks Nystrom, K. G. K. and Pehrsson, O., 1988, , Ibis 130:94-110..


Patterns of habitat use by sea ducks wintering in southeastern Newfoundland,

Goudie, R. I. and Ankney, C. D., 1988, Ornis Scand. 19:249-256..

Population estimates and hunter harvest of diving ducks in northeastern Puget Sound, Wash,

Wick, W. Q. and Jeffrey, R. G., 1966, Murrelet 47:23-32..

Population demography of the endangered eastern Harlequin Duck

Wintering ecology of sea ducks in Belcher Islands, Nunavut

Population trends in diving ducks at Myvatn, Iceland, in relation to food,

Gardarsson, A., 1979, Verh. Ornithol. Ges. Bayern 23:191-200..

Prey selection by oldsquaws in a Beaufort Sea lagoon, Alaska, Johnson, S. R., 1984, Pages 12-19 in D. N. Nettleship, G. A. Sanger, and P. F. Springer, eds. Marine birds: their feeding ecology and commercial fisheries relationships. Proc. Pacific seabird group symposium. Can. Wildl. Serv., Ottawa, Ont., Can. 220pp..

A study of the old-squaw duck on Lake Michigan,

Ellarson, R. S., 1956, Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Wisconsin, Madison. 231pp..

Use of wetland habitats by birds in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska

Derksen, D.V., T.C. Rothe, and W.D. Eldridge. 1981. USDI, USFWS, Res. Pub. 141.

Variations in clutch-size in ducks in relation to the food supply,

Bengtson=, S.-A., 1971, Ibis 113:523-526..

Waterbird populations and habitat analysis of selected sites in NPR-A.

Derksen, D.V., W.D. Eldridge, and T.C. Rothe. 1977. USFWS, Ecological Services, Office of Special Studies. FWLB0065.

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